Tank Gauging Basics

Tank gauging is the generic name given to the measurement of liquids (product) in bulk storage tanks with the aim of quantifying how much product is in the tank, “gauging the contents of a tank”. Today, the oil and gas industry uses the static measurement of the tank contents to account for product stored and product moved into and out of the tank.

There are many instruments and systems available that can provide the combination of measurements that will allow an accurate quantity assessment and, hence, good inventory management. But, before a particular instrument is chosen based on its data specification alone, other factors should be assessed that affect the application and create uncertainties in the measurement.

Storage Tanks

There is a wide range of storage tanks found throughout the oil & gas industry. Depending on the tank type or mounting options, a particular tank gauge or measurement solution may be more suitable. Tanks are chosen according to the flash point of liquid stored in the tank. Generally speaking, in refineries, tank farms and terminals where petroleum based liquids are stored, above ground fixed roof tanks or floating roof tanks are predominant. These tanks operate under no (or very little) pressure, distinguishing them from pressure vessels, which in turn have additional requirements that must be considered.

Fixed, Cone Roof Tanks

Fixed (cone, dome or umbrella) roof tanks are the most common and identifiable bulk storage vessels in the oil & gas industry, typically seen with a wrap around staircase. They range in sizes up to 30 meters tall by 100 meters wide and are used to store liquids with very high flash points (e.g. fuel oil, heavy oil, kerosene, diesel oil, water, bitumen, etc.). The addition of a dome roof reduces environmental emissions and provides additional strength to allow slightly higher storage pressures than that of atmosphere. Float and tape tank gauges can be installed ‘at grade’ on the tank-side or on the tank roof. Servo, radar and other gauging technologies are installed on the tank roof. When installed on the tank roof, a gauge is mounted on a flange that is either permanently affixed to the tank roof or integrated into a manhole cover.

Floating Roof Tanks

Some storage tanks need a floating roof in addition to or in lieu of the fixed roof. A sealing device is installed on the peripheral space between the roof and shell plate, which acts as a safety and pollution prevention device by trapping the vapor from low flashpoint products. Floating roof tanks are broadly divided into internal (IFR) and external (EFR) floating roof tanks. IFR tanks are used for liquids with low flashpoints (e.g. gasoline, ethanol, etc.). These tanks are nothing more than cone roof tanks with a floating roof inside the tank, which travels up and down along with the liquid level. At low product levels, the floating roof is supported with legs on which it rests. EFRs are open at the top and do not have a fixed roof. As such, they are suitable for medium flash point liquids (naphtha, kerosene, diesel, crude oil, etc.). When mounting a servo or radar gauge on a floating roof tank, a gauging platform is required in order to mount the gauge over the product. This may be the tank roof on covered internal floating roof tanks or an actual platform that extends out from the tank wall over an open roof tank. Many platforms provide a stilling well. The stilling well provides stability and a “calm” surface to enable an accurate measurement. Servo gauges require a stilling well and Varec recommends the use of a stilling well or a roof reflector for radar measurement. For float and tape gauges, a stilling well is not required as it is more common to see a pan/well inside the floating roof. Alternatively, a weight is placed on the roof that connects to the gauge tape/wire. The actual float and tape gauge level measurement is then an indication of the roof’s position, which can be corrected to the actual liquid level.

Sphere and Bullet Tanks

Flat-bottomed, cylindrical or spherical (single and double shell) storage tanks are typically within the scope of our measurement capabilities. They are used to store liquefied gases with very low flash points (LNG, LPG, Ethylene, butane and ammonia) under pressure or at temperatures under -100 °C. Bullet tanks gain their name due to their shape – long cylindrical tanks with round or flat ends. They are generally 5,000 to 30,000 gallons in size, prefabricated and installed horizontally or vertically. At tank farms, terminals and refineries, they often store products that support the facility’s operations – additives for injection, fuels to run refinery process operations or by-products, such as transmix from terminal product receipts. Bullet tanks can also store liquefied gases under pressure. Due to their smaller size and the products they contain, it is more common to use radar, servo or magnetostrictive technology for gauging the contents of the tank.

Underground Storage Tanks

Underground storage tanks (UST) used to store petroleum based products are regulated to prevent release of petroleum and contamination of groundwater. In the U.S., they are primarily used at automobile filling stations (an application outside our product range), but can also be found at military bases, airports and tank farms. They are prefabricated from steel, aluminum or glass fiber and are generally double walled, bullet shaped tanks that have been buried. Likewise, it is more common to use radar, servo or magnetostrictive technology for gauging the contents of the tank.

Tank Deformations

There are many factors that affect the accuracy, reliability and repeatability of a tank gauging measurement, as each application, even on similar tanks, may be different. The considerations mentioned below indicate that tank gauging for bulk storage tanks demands qualified and experienced engineering to achieve highly accurate tank volume and mass measurement. At Varec, we have experienced personnel that can identify sources of errors and assist in overcoming and negating these errors as much as possible.

Tank Shape and Deformation

The tank shape itself can cause errors. The weight of the product against the side of the tank wall causes the wall to bow (deform). A vertical cylindrical tank suffers more deformation and errors than a spherical or bullet shaped tank.

Large tanks tend to have rounded corners to transition from vertical side walls to bottom profiles to help withstand hydraulic hydrostatically induced pressure of contained liquid. Measuring close to the tank wall is not recommended and most tanks do not have entries or stilling wells for instrumentation close to the tank wall.

Tank Capacity Table (Strapping Table)

The error in the tank capacity table is caused by the errors made with the proving equipment. Over time, the capacity of the tank will also change, so most companies recalibrate the tank every five to ten years. If errors do exist in the Tank Capacity Table, they are generally consistent and repeatable and hence appear on every measurement. Varec Tank gauging systems (FuelsManager® and 8130 RTU) are able to incorporate tank strapping tables into volumetric calculations to improve the accuracy of the inventory measurement.

Tank Bottom Movements

The tank bottom always moves in a different way when the tank is filled. Therefore, at the bottom of each tank, generally below the data plate, there is a “no gauge” zone (no measuring allowed). For instance, this occurs when the roof is not floating, but resting on its supports.

Tank Shell Thermal Expansion

Due to temperature changes, the tank characteristics and capacity may change. A tank with a stored product of 200°C has a different capacity and will deform more than at ambient temperatures. However, predictions and corrections can be made to overcome these differences.

Roof Weight Changes

With floating roof tanks, the actual roof weight also changes. Every time the roof weight or position changes, the product level will. For example, with heavy winds the roof can possibly oscillate and reduce in weight. Also, the rubber seals at the side of a floating roof can cause friction, so the roof does not move equally (or level) with the product. In cold climates there can be a large amount of snow on the roof, which also causes substantial changes in the roof weight.

Datum Plate Movements

Due to the tank deformation, the datum plate will move. This datum plate is a physical plate welded in the tank, which represents the official zero level in the tank. Measurement below this level is not permitted. It may not even be possible to get product out of the tanks due to the mounting position of the inlet and outlet pipes.

Gauge Installation

Right above the datum plate in a tank is the only official measuring point in the tank to measure the correct level. However, in some cases it is not possible to mount the level gauge at this particular point, so the gauge is mounted elsewhere. A correction is then made for the tilt of the tank. In some areas, the ground is quite weak and the tank will move slightly over the years. If a new Tank Calibration Table (TCT) or strapping table is made, these errors can be eliminated.

Stability of the Gauging Platform

Not all mounting positions are always stable. For instance, the roof of a fixed roof tank is only a few millimeters thick. Walking on such a roof will cause roof movements resulting in errors in the measurement. Tank wall deformation also affects the tank roof or a gauging platform. In some cases, this will cause permanent changes in the position of the gauge in relation to the product level.

Stilling Wells for Tank Gauging

Is your stilling well ready for tank gauging? Varec recommends the use of a “stilling well” for a radar or servo tank gauging application. The stilling well is designed to provide a stable gauging platform that is able to offset hydrostatic tank deformation. The deformation would otherwise result in undesirable vertical movement of the tank roof and, hence, a change in the gauge reference height (GRH). Installing the gauge on the stilling well, which is more stable, improves the accuracy of the gauge by eliminating the GRH change.

Suitable Criteria for ATG Platform

Unfortunately, not all stilling wells are suitable for an ATG platform. There are basically two ‘must meet’ criteria:

  • The first and most important fact is that stilling wells must be perforated. Holes (or slots) allow free movement of product through the stilling well.
  • The second is that the stilling well should be supported from the tank bottom or from the lowest portion of the tank shell to provide that extra stability. The local ground or tank foundation must be sufficiently stable.

A stilling well that is not perforated makes the measurement system susceptible to external influences , such as product stratification or free water at the bottom of a tank and increases the chances of errors in your level measurements.

Product Stratification

A result of product stratification is that the product within the stilling well will not be representative of the tank contents. A small temperature difference of 1°C will cause a 0.1% change in density in most hydrocarbons. For a 12-meter high tank with 10-meter product, this means a level difference of 10 mm!

Assume a tank with free water at the bottom and the situation where the un-slotted stilling well extends into the water. If the tank is filled, the product flowing into the tank will displace the water and push the water into the stilling well. For a normal hydrocarbon, this will result in a ‘product’ level 20% lower than the ‘actual’ level in the tank.

 

Stratification

Free Water

Slotted

In the example for stratification and free water, even more extreme and possibly even more dangerous cases can occur, such as an overfill.

Simple Solution

Try to use stilling wells with perforations only. API MPMS Chapter 3.1B contains recommendations. A good guideline is to have holes at least every foot, roughly one inch in diameter and drilled on opposite sides in a ‘staggered’ pattern.For

  • Very Viscous Products – Larger slots can be considered; one inch wide should be enough for 8″, 10″ and 12″. For 4″ and 6″ stilling wells, smaller diameters should be considered, especially when used in combination with a radar device.
  • For Very Light Products – For LPGs and additives often stored in bullets or cigar shaped tanks, it is now possible to use radar gauges with a ‘wave-guide’. This acts as a dedicated stilling well and for these applications even smaller diameter holes can be used (5-8 mm diameter for every 15 cm).

For additional information contact a local Varec representative.

Tank Gauging Solutions for Liquid Petroleum Products

Varec is able to recommend a tank gauging solution based on the technology and petroleum product stored in a tank. Stock or refined petroleum products may be grouped into categories based on the physical properties that affect instrumentation or the measurement in the tank.

The following are general tank gauging solution recommendations based on common product applications. Each solution details level and temperature measurement options to allow for volume calculations to applicable API standards based on the accuracy of the level device. The final selection of a technology would also depend on the applicable operations and installation requirements as well as customer preference.

Liquid Gases

Varec recommends a servo technology solution for storage tanks containing liquefied gases, such as LPG, methane, ethane and butane, due to the accuracy and multi-variable measurement of the 6005 STG. The other major technologies radar, hybrid, float & tape and hydrostatic (in order of preference) are also suitable for measurement of liquefied gases.

View tank gauging technologies.

Light Distillates

Varec recommends a servo technology solution for storage tanks containing light distillates, such as gasoline (petrol), kerosene, jet fuel and other aircraft fuels, due to the accuracy and multi-variable measurement of the 6005 STG. The other major technologies – radar, hybrid, float & tape and hydrostatic (in order of preference), are also suitable for measurement of light distillates.

View tank gauging technologies.

Middle Distillates

Varec equally recommends a servo technology solution or a radar technology solution for storage tanks containing middle distillates, such as automotive/railroad diesels, residential and other light heating/fuel oils. Both technologies provide measurable benefits, depending on your business operations. The other major technologies – hybrid,float & tape and hydrostatic (in order of preference), are also suitable for measurement of middle distillates.

View tank gauging technologies.

Viscous Products

Varec recommends a radar (non-contact) technology solution for storage tanks containing viscous products, such as crude, heavy fuel , bunker fuel and other residual fuel oils if a level only measurement is requiredIf multiple variables are required for inventory management, such as density or water interface, then a servo technology solution is recommendedThe other major technologies – hybrid, float & tape and hydrostatic (in order of preference), are also suitable for measurement of middle distillates.

For extremely viscous products, such as asphalt and tar, Varec recommends a non-contact measurement solution, such as radar technology or hydrostatic measurement with heat traced nozzles.

View tank gauging technologies.

Aggressive Products

Varec recommends a radar (non-contact) technology solution for storage tanks containing aggressive products, such as elemental sulfur or sulfuric acid. Alternatively, servo or float & tape technology solutions with specific material selections (hastalloy C, carp 20 or PTFE) for wetted parts may also be suitable.

View tank gauging technologies.

Petroleum Stock Management Operations

Requirements for the management of liquid petroleum products are specific to an individual company that operates a bulk storage facility. The following provides an overview of the operations performed at many oil and gas facilities

Inventory Control or Custody Transfer

Inventory control is a term used to describe the management of inventories that generally do not change ownership when they are moved or used. Custody transfer implies two parties have an agreed upon system for accurately measuring the amount of product transferred. The system is often specified and approved by authorities, such as NMI, to international accepted standards for assessment of taxes or duties. A tank gauging system may be selected based on accuracy, repeatability or the ability to perform multiple measurements, such as temperature or density profiles. Tank gauges may not even be integrated into an inventory system, instead the gauge may only provide level outputs to alarm, relay or other host systems.

Product Movements and Operations

The logistics process is used by facility operators to plan daily activities. Here, instrument reliability and repeatability is often more important than absolute accuracy. Complete integration and functionality to view and track all product movement totals, discrepancies and supervisory control of pumps and valves may be required. This could include obtaining tank-to-tank transfers, charges, shipments, receipts, yields (rundowns), water drains and blends with the ability to compare this data, archive and print reports.

Accounting and Reconciliation

Oil and gas facilities often need to accurately manage transactions and reconcile book versus physical inventory.  Generally, companies need to see the beginning daily book inventory, all configured transactions by day, the end of day physical inventory and the gain/loss for each day and month.  They need to see this data for a selected product or transaction type. Every company is accountable; reconciliation, error reporting and query tools should also provide the auditing and traceability that is often required. Integrating instruments and systems will allow the immediate data acquisition and response required for accurate daily accounting and reconciliation.

Environmental Compliance

As the industry is becoming more aware of the impact of overfills, leaks and emissions of environmentally damaging product, programs are initiated to reduce the risks and comply with international, national and local environmental regulations. Bulk storage facilities primarily look for a system to provide and manage alarms and detect leaks that can integrate with instruments already installed. Without a specific leak detection system, long term historical data can be analyzed to identify possible leaks or calculate emissions, but extensive custom reporting is often required.

Dielectric Constants of Liquid Products

In laymans terms, the dielectric constant (k) of a material is the property which determines the electrostatic energy stored per unit of volume. For radar tank gauging, the difference in dielectric constant between the free space (vapor) and the liquid is what generates a reflection of the radar gauge’s signals. The reflection (or return pulse) can then be dectected by the radar unit and displayed as a level measurement.

Major Petroleum Products
  • LPG 1.6-1.9
  • Methane (-280° F) 1.7
  • Methane, Liquid 1.7
  • Butane (30° F) 1.4
  • Gasoline (70° F) 2.0
  • Kerosene (70° F) 1.8
  • Jet Fuel (Jp4) (70° F) 1.7
  • Jet Fuel (Military Jp4 ) 1.7
  • Heavy Oil 3
  • Oil, Petroleum (68° F) 2.1
  • Asphalt, Liquid 2.5-3.2
Complete List of Dielectric Constants (alphabetically)

The following list can be used in conjunction with the radar selection guide to identify the most appropriate Varec radar tank gauge for the given application.

(Note – this list is generated from publicly available resources and is intended to be a reference guide only.)

A - F

-A-

  • ABS Resin, Lump 2.4-4.1
  • ABS Resin, Pellet 1.5-2.5
  • Acenaphthene (70° F) 3.0
  • Acetal (70° F) 3.6
  • Acetal Bromide 16.5
  • Acetal Doxime (68° F) 3.4
  • Acetaldehyde (41° F) 21.8
  • Acetamide (68° F) 41
  • Acetamide (180° F) 59.0
  • Acetanilide (71° F) 2.9
  • Acetic Acid (68° F) 6.2
  • Acetic Acid (36° F) 4.1
  • Acetic Anhydride (66° F) 21.0
  • Acetone (77° F) 20.7
  • Acetone (127° F) 17.7
  • Acetone (32° F) 1.0159
  • Acetonitrile (70° F) 37.5
  • Acetophenone (75° F) 17.3
  • Acetoxime (24° F) 3
  • Acetyl Acetone (68° F) 23.1
  • Acetyl Bromide (68° F) 16.5
  • Acetyl Chloride (68° F) 15.8
  • Acetyle Acetone (68° F) 25.0
  • Acetylene (32° F) 1.0217
  • Acetylmethyl Hexyl Ketone (66° F) 27.9
  • Acrylic Resin 2.7 – 4.5
  • Acteal 21.0-3.6
  • Air 1
  • Air (Dry) (68° F) 1.000536
  • Alcohol, Industrial 16-31
  • Alkyd Resin 3.5-5
  • Allyl Alcohol (58° F) 22.0
  • Allyl Bromide (66° F) 7.0
  • Allyl Chloride (68° F) 8.2
  • Allyl Iodide (66° F) 6.1
  • Allyl Isothiocyanate (64° F) 17.2
  • Allyl Resin (Cast) 3.6 – 4.5
  • Alumina 9.3-11.5
  • Alumina 4.5
  • Alumina China 3.1-3.9
  • Aluminum Bromide (212° F) 3.4
  • Aluminum Fluoride 2.2
  • Aluminum Hydroxide 2.2
  • Aluminum Oleate (68° F) 2.4
  • Aluminum Phosphate 6.0
  • Aluminum Powder 1.6-1.8
  • Amber 2.8-2.9
  • Aminoalkyd Resin 3.9-4.2
  • Ammonia (-74° F) 25
  • Ammonia (-30° F) 22.0
  • Ammonia (40° F) 18.9
  • Ammonia (69° F) 16.5
  • Ammonia (Gas? ) (32° F) .0072
  • Ammonium Bromide 7.2
  • Ammonium Chloride 7.0
  • Amyl Acetate (68° F) 5.0
  • Amyl Alcohol (-180° F) 35.5
  • Amyl Alcohol (68° F) 15.8
  • Amyl Alcohol (140° F) 11.2
  • Amyl Benzoate (68° F) 5.1
  • Amyl Bromide (50° F) 6.3
  • Amyl Chloride (52° F) 6.6
  • Amyl Ether (60° F) 3.1
  • Amyl Formate (66° F) 5.7
  • Amyl Iodide (62° F) 6.9
  • Amyl Nitrate (62° F) 9.1
  • Amyl Thiocyanate (68° F) 17.4
  • Amylamine (72° F) 4.6
  • Amylene (70° F) 2.0
  • Amylene Bromide (58° F) 5.6
  • Amylenetetrararboxylate (66° F) 4.4
  • Amylmercaptan (68° F) 4.7
  • Aniline (32° F) 7.8
  • Aniline (68° F) 7.3
  • Aniline (212° F) 5.5
  • Aniline Formaldehyde Resin 3.5 – 3.6
  • Aniline Resin 3.4-3.8
  • Anisaldehyde (68° F) 15.8
  • Anisaldoxine (145° F) 9.2
  • Anisole (68° F) 4.3
  • Anitmony Trichloride 5.3
  • Antimony Pentachloride (68° F) 3.2
  • Antimony Tribromide (212° F) 20.9
  • Antimony Trichloride (166° F) 33.0
  • Antimony Trichloride 5.3
  • Antimony Tricodide (347° F) 13.9
  • Apatite 7.4
  • Argon (-376° F) 1.5
  • Argon (68° F) 1.000513
  • Arsenic Tribromide (98° F) 9.0
  • Arsenic Trichloride (150° F) 7.0
  • Arsenic Trichloride (70° F) 12.4
  • Arsenic Triiodide (302° F) 7.0
  • Arsine (-148° F) 2.5
  • Asbestos 3.0 – 4.8
  • Ash (Fly ) 1.7 – 2.0
  • Asphalt (75° F) 2.6
  • Asphalt, Liquid 2.5-3.2
  • Azoxyanisole (122° F) 2.3
  • Azoxybenzene (104° F) 5.1
  • Azoxyphenitole (302° F) 6.8

 


-B-

  • Bakelite 3.5-5.0
  • Ballast 5.4-5.6
  • Ballmill Feed (Cement ) 4.5
  • Balm, Refuse 3.1
  • Barium Chloride 9.4
  • Barium Chloride (Anhyd) 11.0
  • Barium Chloride (2h20 ) 9.4
  • Barium Nitrate 5.8
  • Barium Sulfate (60° F) 11.4
  • Barley Flour 3.0 – 4.0
  • Barley Powder 3.0-4.0
  • Beeswax 2.7 – 3.0
  • Benzal Chloride (68° F) 6.9
  • Benzaldehyde (68° F) 17.8
  • Benzaldoxime (68° F) 3.8
  • Benzene (68° F) 2.3
  • Benzene (275° F) 2.1
  • Benzene (700° F) 1.0028
  • Benzil (202° F) 13.0
  • Benzonitrile (68° F) 26.0
  • Benzophenone (122° F) 11.4
  • Benzophenone (68° F) 13.0
  • Benzotrichloride (68° F) 7.4
  • Benzoyl Chloride (70° F) 22.1
  • Benzoyl Chloride (32° F) 23.0
  • Benzoylacetone (68° F) 29.0
  • Benzyl Acetate (70° F) 5.0
  • Benzyl Alcohol (68° F) 13.0
  • Benzyl Benzoate (68° F) 4.8
  • Benzyl Chloride (68° F) 6.4
  • Benzyl Cyanide (68° F) 18.3
  • Benzyl Cyanide (155° F) 6.0
  • Benzyl Salicylate (68° F) 4.1
  • Benzylamine (68° F) 4.6
  • Benzylethylamine (68° F) 4.3
  • Benzylmethylamine (67° F) 4.4
  • Beryl 6.0
  • Biphenyl 20
  • Biwax 2.5
  • Bleaching Powder 4.5
  • Bone Black 5.0-6.0
  • Bornyl Acetate (70° F) 4.6
  • Boron Bromide (32° F) 2.6
  • Boronyl Chloride (202° F) 5.2
  • Bromaceytal Bromide 12.6
  • Bromal (70° F) 7.6
  • Bromine (68° F) 3.1
  • Bromine (32° F) 1.0128
  • Bromo-2-Ethoxypentane (76° F) 6.5
  • Bromoacetyl Bromide (68° F) 12.6
  • Bromoaniline (68° F) 13
  • Bromoanisole (86° F) 7.1
  • Bromobenzene (68° F) 5.4
  • Bromobutylene (68° F) 5.8
  • Bromobutyric Acid (68° F) 7.2
  • Bromoctadecane 3.53
  • Bromodecane (76° F) 4.4
  • Bromodeodecane (76° F) 4.1
  • Bromodocosane (130° F) 3.1
  • Bromodoecane (75° F) 4.07
  • Bromoform (68° F) 4.4
  • Bromoheptane (76° F) 5.3
  • Bromohexadecane (76° F) 3.7
  • Bromohexane (76° F) 5.8
  • Bromoisovaleric Acid (68° F) 6.5
  • Bromomethane (32° F) 9.8
  • Bromonapthalene (66° F) 5.1
  • Bromooctadecane (86° F) 3.5
  • Bromopentadecane (68° F) 3.9
  • Bromophropionic Acid (68° F) 11.0
  • Bromotoluene (68° F) 5.1
  • Bromotridecane (50° F) 4.2
  • Bromoundecane (15° F) 4.7
  • Bronyl Chloride (94° F) 5.21
  • Butane (30° F) 1.4
  • Butanol (1) (68° F) 17.8
  • Butanone (68° F) 18.5
  • Butycic Anhydride (20° F) 12.0
  • Butyl Chloral (64° F) 10.0
  • Butyl Chloride (68° F) 9.6
  • Butyl Oleate (77° F) 4.0
  • Butyl Stearate (80° F) 3.1
  • Butylacetate (66° F) 5.1
  • Butylamine (70° F) 5.4
  • Butyraldehyde (79° F) 13.4
  • Butyric Acid (68° F) 3.0
  • Butyric Anhydride (68° F) 12.0
  • Butyronitrile (70° F) 20.7

 


-C-

  • Cable Oil (80° F) 2.2
  • Cabondioxide (68° F) 1.000921
  • Calcim Fluoride 7.4
  • Calcite 8.0
  • Calcium 3.0
  • Calcium Carbonate 6.1-9.1
  • Calcium Fluoride 7.4
  • Calcium Oxide, Granule 11.8
  • Calcium Sulfate 5.6
  • Calcium Sulfate (H2o ) 5.6
  • Calcium Superphosphate 14-15
  • Camphanedione (398° F) 16.0
  • Camphene (68° F) 2.7
  • Camphene (104° F) 2.3
  • Campher, Crystal 10-11
  • Camphoric Imide 4 (80° F) 5.5
  • Camphorpinacone (68° F) 3.6
  • Caprilic Acid (18° F) 3.2
  • Caproic Acid (160° F) 2.6
  • Caprolactam Monomer 1.7 – 1.9
  • Caprylic Acid (65° F) 3.2
  • Carbide 5.8 – 7.0
  • Carbide, Powder 5.8-7.0
  • Carbon Black 2.5 – 3.0
  • Carbon Dioxide (32° F) 1.6
  • Carbon Dioxide, Liquid 1.6
  • Carbon Disulfide, Liquid 2.6
  • Carbon Disulphide (68° F) 2.6
  • Carbon Disulphide (180° F) 2.2
  • Carbon Tetrachloride (68° F) 2.2
  • Carnauba Wax 2.9
  • Carvenone (68° F) 18.4
  • Carvol (64° F) 11.2
  • Carvone (71° F) 11.0
  • Casein 6.1 – 6.8
  • Casein Resin 6.7
  • Cassiterite 23.4
  • Castor Oil (60° F) 4.7
  • Castor Oil (80° F) 2.6
  • Castor Oil (Hydrogenated ) (80° F) 10.3
  • Cedrene (76° F) 3.2
  • Cellophane 3.2-6.4
  • Celluloid 3.3-11
  • Cellulose 3.2-7.5
  • Cellulose Acetate 3.2-7
  • Cellulose Acetate (Molding ) 3.2 – 7.0
  • Cellulose Acetate (Sheet ) 4.0 – 5.5
  • Cellulose Acetate Butyrate 3.2 – 6.2
  • Cellulose Nitrate (Proxylin ) 6.4
  • Cement 1.5 – 2.1
  • Cement (Plain ) 1.5 – 2.1
  • Cement, Portland 2.5-2.6
  • Cement, Powder 5-10
  • Cereals (Dry ) 3.0 – 5.0
  • Cerese Wax 2.4
  • Cesium Iodine 5.6
  • Cetyl Iodide (68° F) 3.3
  • Charcoal 1.2-1.81
  • Chinaware, Hard 4-7
  • Chloracetic Acid (140° F) 12.3
  • Chloracetone 29.8
  • Chloral (68° F) 4.9
  • Chlorhexanone Oxime 3
  • Chlorine (-50° F) 2.1
  • Chlorine (32° F) 2.0
  • Chlorine (142° F) 1.5
  • Chlorine, Liquid 2
  • Chloroacetic Acid (68° F) 21.0
  • Chloroacetone (68° F) 29.8
  • Chlorobenzene (77° F) 5.6
  • Chlorobenzene (100° F) 4.7
  • Chlorobenzene (230° F) 4.1
  • Chlorobenzine, Liquid 5.5-6.3
  • Chlorocyclohexane (76° F) 7.6
  • Chloroform (32° F) 5.5
  • Chloroform (68° F) 4.8
  • Chloroform (212° F) 3.7
  • Chloroheptane (71° F) 5.5
  • Chlorohexanone Oxime (192° F) 3.0
  • Chlorohydrate (68° F) 3.3
  • Chloromethane -4 12.6
  • Chloronaphthalene (76° F) 5.0
  • Chlorooctane (76° F) 5.1
  • Chlorophetane 5.4
  • Chlorotoluene (68° F) 4.7
  • Chlorotoluene, Liquid 4-4.5
  • Cholesterin 2.86
  • Cholestral (80° F) 2.9
  • Chorine (170° F) 1.7
  • Chrome, Ore 7.7-8.0
  • Chrome, Pure 12
  • Chromite 4.0-4.2
  • Chromyl Choride (68° F) 2.6
  • Cinnamaldehyde (75° F) 16.9
  • Cis-3-Hexene (76° F) 2.1
  • Citraconic Anhydride (68° F) 40.3
  • Citraconic Nitrile 27
  • Clay 1.8 – 2.8
  • Clinker (Cement ) 2.7
  • Coal Tar 2.0-3.0
  • Coal, Powder, Fine 2-4
  • Cocaine (68° F) 3.1
  • Coffee Refuse 2.4-2.6
  • Coke 1.1 – 2.2
  • Compound 3.6
  • Copper Catalyst 6.0 – 6.2
  • Copper Oleate (68° F) 2.8
  • Copper Oxide 18.1
  • Corderite 2.5 – 5.4
  • Corn 5-10
  • Corn (Dry Granulars ) 1.8
  • Corn, Refuse 2.3-2.6
  • Corning Glass 6.5
  • Cotton 1.3-1.4
  • Cotton Seed Oil 3.1
  • Co2 (32° F) 1.6
  • Creosol (63° F) 10.6
  • Cresol (75° F) 5.0
  • Cresol, Liquid 9-11
  • Crotonic Nitrice (68° F) 28.0
  • Crystale 3.5-4.7
  • Cumaldehyde (59° F) 11.0
  • Cumene (68° F) 2.4
  • Cumicaldehyde (58° F) 10.7
  • Cupric Oleate 2.8
  • Cupric Oxide (60° F) 18.1
  • Cupric Sulfate 10.3
  • Cupric Sulfate (Anhyd ) 10.3
  • Cupric Sulfate (5h2o) 7.8
  • Cyanoacetic Acid (40° F) 33.0
  • Cyanoethyl Acetate (68° F) 19.3
  • Cyanogen (73° F) 2.6
  • Cyclohedane (20° F) 2.0
  • Cyclohenanone (68° F) 18.2
  • Cycloheptasiloxane (68° F) 2.7
  • Cyclohexane (68° F) 2.0
  • Cyclohexane, Liquid 18.5
  • Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acid (88° F) 2.6
  • Cyclohexanemethanol (140° F) 9.7
  • Cyclohexanol (77° F) 15.0
  • Cyclohexanone (68° F) 18.2
  • Cyclohexanone Oxime (192° F) 3.0
  • Cyclohexene (68° F) 18.3
  • Cyclohexylamine-5 5.3
  • Cyclohexylphenol (130° F)
  • 4.0 Cyclohexyltrifluoromethane-1 (68° F) 11.0
  • Cyclopentane (68° F) 2.0
  • Cymene 62 2.3

 


-D-

  • D-Cocaine 3.1
  • D.M.T. (Dacron Powder) 1.33
  • Decahydronaphtolene (68° F) 2.2
  • Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (68° F) 2.5
  • Decamethyltetrasiloxane (68° F) 2.4
  • Decanal 8.1
  • Decane (68° F) 2.0
  • Decanol (68° F) 8.1
  • Decylene (62° F) 2.7
  • Decyne (68° F) 2.2
  • Deuterium (68° F) 1.3
  • Deuterium Oxide (77° F) 78.3
  • Dextrin 2.2-2.4
  • Diacetoxybutane (76° F) 6.64
  • Diallyl Sulfide (68° F) 4.9
  • Diamond 5.5 – 10.0
  • Diaphenylmethane 2.7
  • Diaplmitin 3.5
  • Dibenzofuran (212° F) 3.0
  • Dibenzyl Sebacate (68° F) 4.6
  • Dibenzylamine (68° F) 3.6
  • Dibroheptane (24° F) 5.08
  • Dibromobenzene (68° F) 8.8
  • Dibromobutane (68° F) 5.7
  • Dibromoethylene (Cis-1, 2 ) (32° F) 7.7
  • Dibromoheptane (76° F) 5.1
  • Dibromohexane (76° F) 5.0
  • Dibromomethane (50° F) 7.8
  • Dibromopropane (68° F) 4.3
  • Dibromopropyl Alcohol (70° F) 9.1
  • Dibutyl Phthalate (86° F) 6.4
  • Dibutyl Sebacate (86° F) 4.5
  • Dibutyl Tartrate 109 9.4
  • Dichloracetic Acid (20° F) 10.7
  • Dichloracetic Acid (72° F) 8.2
  • Dichloracetone (68° F) 14.0
  • Dichlorobenzene (127° F) 2.8
  • Dichloroethane (68° F) 16.7
  • Dichloroethane (1,2)(77° F) 10.3
  • Dichloroethylene (62° F) 4.6
  • Dichloromethane (68° F) 9.1
  • Dichlorostyrene (76° F) 2.6
  • Dichlorotoluene (68° F) 6.9
  • Dictyl Phthalate 5.1
  • Dicyclohexyl Adipate (95° F) 4.8
  • Diebenzylamine (68° F) 3.6
  • Diethyl Benzalmalonate (32° F) 8.0
  • Diethyl Disulfide (66° F) 15.9
  • Diethyl Dl-Malate (64° F) 10.2
  • Diethyl Glutarate (86° F) 6.7
  • Diethyl I-Malate 9.5
  • Diethyl Ketone (58° F) 17.3
  • Diethyl L-Malate (68° F) 9.5
  • Diethyl Malonate (70° F) 7.9
  • Diethyl Oxalate (70° F) 8.2
  • Diethyl Oxaloacetate (66° F) 6.1
  • Diethyl Racemate (68° F) 4.5
  • Diethyl Sebacate (86° F) 5.0
  • Diethyl Succinate (86° F) 6.6
  • Diethyl Succinosuccinate (66° F) 2.5
  • Diethyl Sulfide (68° F) 7.2
  • Diethyl Sulfite (68° F) 15.9
  • Diethyl Tartrate (68° F) 4.5
  • Diethyl Zinc (68° F) 2.6
  • Diethyl 1-Malate (68° F) 9.5
  • Diethyl-Dimalate 10.2
  • Diethylamine (68° F) 3.7
  • Diethylaniline (66° F) 5.5
  • Dihydrocaroone (66° F) 8.7
  • Dihydrocarvone (66° F) 8.5
  • Diimylamine (64° F) 2.5
  • Diioamylene (62° F) 2.4
  • Diiodoethylene 1 (80° F) 4.0
  • Diiodomethane (77° F) 5.3
  • Diisoamyl (62° F) 2.0
  • Diisoamylene 2.4
  • Diisobutylamine (71° F) 2.7
  • Dimethoxybenzene (73° F) 4.5
  • Dimethyl Ethyl (68° F) 11.7
  • Dimethyl Ethyl Carbinol (68° F) 11.7
  • Dimethyl Malonate (68° F) 10.4
  • Dimethyl Oxalate (68° F) 3.0
  • Dimethyl Pentane (20° F) 1.912
  • Dimethyl Phthalate (75° F) 8.5
  • Dimethyl Sulfate (68° F) 55.0
  • Dimethyl Sulfide (68° F) 6.3
  • Dimethyl-1-Hydroxybenzene (62° F) 4.8
  • Dimethyl-2-Hexane (68° F) 2.4
  • Dimethylamine (32° F) 6.3
  • Dimethylaniline (68° F) 4.4
  • Dimethylbromoethylene (68° F) 6.7
  • Dimethylheptane (68° F) 1.9
  • Dimethylpentane (68° F) 1.9
  • Dimethylquinoxaline (76° F) 2.3
  • Dimethyltouidine (68° F) 3.3
  • Dinitrogen Oxide (32° F) 1.6
  • Dinitrogen Tetroxide (58° F) 2.5
  • Dioctyl Phthalate (76° F) 5.1
  • Dioxane 1,4 (77° F) 2.2
  • Dipalmitin (161° F) 3.5
  • Dipentene (68° F) 2.3
  • Dipenylamine (125° F) 3.3
  • Diphemylethane (230° F) 2.4
  • Diphemylethane (62° F) 12.6
  • Diphenyl 1(66° F) 2.5
  • Diphenyl Ether (82° F) 3.9
  • Diphenylamine (124° F) 3.3
  • Diphenylethane (110° F) 2.38
  • Diphenytmethane (62° F) 2.6
  • Dipropyl Ketone (62° F) 12.6
  • Dipropylamine (70° F) 2.9
  • Distearin (172° F) 3.3
  • Docosane (122° F) 2.0
  • Dodecamethylcyclohexisloxane (68° F) 2.6
  • Dodecamethylpentasiloxane (68° F) 2.5
  • Dodecane (68° F) 2.0
  • Dodecanol (76° F) 6.5
  • Dodecyne (76° F) 2.2
  • Dolomite 6.8-8.0
  • Dowtherm (70° F) 3.4

 


-E-

  • Ebonite 2.5-2.9
  • Emery Sand 16.5
  • Epichlorchydrin (68° F) 22.9
  • Epoxy Resin (Cast ) 3.6
  • Ethanediamine (68° F) 14.2
  • Ethanethiol (58° F) 6.9
  • Ethanethiolic Acid (68° F) 13.0
  • Ethanol (77° F) 24.3
  • Ethelene Diamine (18° F) 16.0
  • Ethelene Oxide -1 13.9
  • Ethoxy-3-Methylbutane (68° F) 4.0
  • Ethoxybenzene (68° F) 4.2
  • Ethoxyethyl Acetate (86° F) 7.6
  • Ethoxynapthalone (66° F) 3.3
  • Ethoxypentane (73° F) 3.6
  • Ethoxytoluene (68° F) 3.9
  • Ethyl Acetate (77° F) 6.0
  • Ethyl Acetoacetate (71° F) 15.9
  • Ethyl Acetoneoxalate (66° F) 16.1
  • Ethyl Acetophenoneoxalate (66° F) 3.3
  • Ethyl Alcohol (77° F) 24.3
  • Ethyl Alcohol (See Ethanol)
  • Ethyl Amyl Ether (68° F) 4.0
  • Ethyl Benzene (68° F) 2.5
  • Ethyl Benzoate (68° F) 6.0
  • Ethyl Benzoylacetate (68° F) 12.8
  • Ethyl Benzoylacetoacetate (70° F) 8.6
  • Ethyl Benzyl Ether (68° F) 3.8
  • Ethyl Bromide (64° F) 4.9
  • Ethyl Bromoisobutyrate (68° F) 7.9
  • Ethyl Bromopropionate (68° F) 9.4
  • Ethyl Butyrate (66° F) 5.1
  • Ethyl Carbonate (68° F) 3.1
  • Ethyl Carbonate (121° F) 14.2
  • Ethyl Cellulose 2.8 – 3.9
  • Ethyl Chloracetate (68° F) 11.6
  • Ethyl Chloroformate (68° F) 11.3
  • Ethyl Chloropropionate (68° F) 10.1
  • Ethyl Cinnamate (66° F) 5.3
  • Ethyl Cyanoacetate (68° F) 27.0
  • Ethyl Cyclobutane (68° F) 2.0
  • Ethyl Dodecanoate (68° F) 3.4
  • Ethyl Ether (-148° F) 8.1
  • Ethyl Ether (-40° F) 5.7
  • Ethyl Ether (68° F) 4.3
  • Ethyl Ethoxybenzoate (70° F) 7.1
  • Ethyl Formate (77° F) 7.1
  • Ethyl Formylphenylacetate (68° F) 3.0
  • Ethyl Fumarate (73° F) 6.5
  • Ethyl Hydroxy-Tetracarboxylate 5.9
  • Ethyl Hydroxy-Tetrocarboxylate 2.7
  • Ethyl Hydroxymethylenephenylacet 5.00
  • Ethyl Hydroxymethylenomalonate 6.6
  • Ethyl Iodide (68° F) 7.4
  • Ethyl Isothiocyanate (68° F) 19.7
  • Ethyl Levulinete (70° F) 12.1
  • Ethyl Maleate (73° F) 8.5
  • Ethyl Mercaptan (68° F) 8.0
  • Ethyl Nitrate (68° F) 19.7
  • Ethyl Oleate (80° F) 3.2
  • Ethyl Palmitate (68° F) 3.2
  • Ethyl Phenylacetate (70° F) 5.4
  • Ethyl Propionate (68° F) 5.7
  • Ethyl Salicylate (70° F) 8.6
  • Ethyl Silicate (68° F) 4.1
  • Ethyl Stearate (104° F) 3.0
  • Ethyl Thiocyanate (68° F) 29.6
  • Ethyl Trichloracetate (68° F) 7.8
  • Ethyl Undecanoate (68° F) 3.6
  • Ethyl Valerate (68° F) 4.7
  • Ethyl 1-Brobutyrate (68° F) 8.0
  • Ethyl 2-Iodopropionate (68° F) 8.8
  • Ethylamine (70° F) 6.3
  • Ethylaniline (68° F) 5.9
  • Ethylbenzene (76° F) 3.0
  • Ethylene Chloride (68° F) 10.5
  • Ethylene Chlorohydrin (77° F) 26.0
  • Ethylene Cyanide (136° F) 58.3
  • Ethylene Diamine (64° F) 16.0
  • Ethylene Gylcol (68° F) 37.0
  • Ethylene Iodide 3.4
  • Ethylene Oxide 25 14.0
  • Ethylene Tetraflouride 1.9-2.0
  • Ethylenechlorohydrin (75° F) 25.0
  • Ethylenediamine (64° F) 16.0
  • Ethylic Resin 2.2-2.3
  • Ethylpentane (68° F) 1.9
  • Ethyltoluene (76° F) 2.2
  • Etibine (-58° F) 2.5
  • Eugenol (64° F) 6.1

 


-F-

  • Fab (From Box, 8% Moisture ) 1.3
  • Fenchone (68° F) 12.0
  • Fermanium Tetrachloride (76° F) 2.4
  • Ferric Oleate (68° F) 2.6
  • Ferrochromium 1.5-1.8
  • Ferromanganese 5.0-5.2
  • Ferrous Oxide (60° F) 14.2
  • Ferrous Sulfate (58° F) 14.2
  • Flour 2.5-3.0
  • Flourine (-332° F) 1.5
  • Flourspar 6.8
  • Fluorotoluene (86° F) 4.2
  • Fly Ash 1.9 – 2.6
  • Formalin 23
  • Formamide (68° F) 84.0
  • Formic Acid (60° F) 58.0
  • Forsterite 6.2
  • Freon 11 (70° F) 3.1
  • Freon 113 (70° F) 2.6
  • Freon 12 (70° F) 2.4
  • Fuller’s Earth 1.8 – 2.2
  • Furan (77° F) 3.0
  • Furfural (68° F) 42.0
  • Furfuraldehyde (68° F) 41.9

G - N

-G-

  • Gasoline (70° F) 2.0
  • Gerber Oatmeal (In Box ) 1.5
  • Germanium Tetrachloride (77° F) 2.4
  • Glass 3.7-10
  • Glass (Silica ) 3.8
  • Glass, Bead 3.1
  • Glass, Granule 6-7
  • Glass, Raw Material 2.0-2.5
  • Glucoheptitol (248° F) 27.0
  • Glycerin, Liquid 47-68
  • Glycerol (77° F) 42.5
  • Glycerol (32° F) 47.2
  • Glycerol Phthalate (Cast Alkyd ) 3.7 – 4.0
  • Glyceryl Triocetate (70° F) 6.0
  • Glycol (77° F) 37.0
  • Glycol (122° F) 35.6
  • Glycolic Nitrile (68° F) 27.0
  • Grain 3-8
  • Graphite 12-15
  • Guaiacol 0 11.0
  • Gypsum 2.5-6.0

 


-H-

  • Hagemannie Ester (68° F) 10.6
  • Halowax 4.5
  • Heavy Oil 3
  • Heavy Oil, C 2.6
  • Helium-3(58° F) 1.055
  • Helium, Liquid 1.05
  • Heptadecanone (140° F) 5.3
  • Heptane (68° F) 1.9
  • Heptane, Liquid 1.9-2.0
  • Heptanoic Acid 2.5
  • Heptanoic Acield (71° F) 2.59
  • Heptanone (68° F) 11.9
  • Heptaonic Acid (160° F) 2.6
  • Heptyl Alcohol (70° F) 6.7
  • Hexamethyldisiloxane (68° F) 2.2
  • Hexane (-130° F) 2.0
  • Hexanol (77° F) 13.3
  • Hexanone (59° F) 14.6
  • Hexdecamethylcycloheptasiloxane (68° F) 2.7
  • Hexyl Iodide (68° F) 6.6
  • Hexylene (62° F) 2.0
  • Hexyliodide (68° F) 6.6
  • Hydrazine (68° F) 52.0
  • Hydrochloric Acid (68° F) 4.60
  • Hydrocyanic Acid (70° F) 2.3
  • Hydrocyanic Acid (32° F) 158.0
  • Hydrogen (440° F) 1.23
  • Hydrogen (212° F) 1.000284
  • Hydrogen Iodide (72° F) 2.9
  • Hydrogen Bromide (24° F) 3.8
  • Hydrogen Bromide (-120° F) 7.0
  • Hydrogen Chloride (82° F) 4.6
  • Hydrogen Chloride (-188° F) 12.0
  • Hydrogen Cyanide (70° F) 95.4
  • Hydrogen Fluoride (32° F) 84.2
  • Hydrogen Fluoride (-100° F) 17
  • Hydrogen Iodide( 72° F) 2.9
  • Hydrogen Peroxide (32° F) 84.2
  • Hydrogen Peroxide 100% 70.7
  • Hydrogen Peroxide 35% 121.0
  • Hydrogen Sulfide (-84° F) 9.3
  • Hydrogen Sulfide (48° F) 5.8
  • Hydrofluoric Acid (32° F) 83.6
  • Hydroxy-4-Methy-2-Pentanone (76° F) 18.2
  • Hydroxymethylene Camphor (86° F) 5.2
  • Hydroxymethylenehydroxymethyleneacetoacetate 7.8
  • Hydroxymethylenebenzyl Cyanide (68° F) 6.0
  • Hydrozine (68° F) 52.9

 


-I-

  • Ido-Iodohexadecane (68° F) 3.5
  • Idoheptane (71° F) 4.9
  • Idohexane (68° F) 5.4
  • Idomethane (68° F) 7.0
  • Idopoctane (76° F) 4.6
  • Idotoluene (68° F) 6.1
  • Ilmenite 6.0 – 7.0
  • Inadol (140° F) 7.8
  • Indonol (60° F) 7.8
  • Iodine (107° F) 118.0
  • Iodine 11
  • Iodine (250° F) 118.0
  • Iodine (Granular) 4.0
  • Iodioctane 4.6
  • Iodloctane (24° F) 4.62
  • Iodobenzene (68° F) 4.6
  • Iodoheptane (22° F) 4.92
  • Iodohexane (20° F) 5.37
  • Iodomethane (20° F) 7.0
  • Iodotoluene (20° F) 6.1
  • Iron Oxide 14.2
  • Iso Butyl Alcohol 18.7-31.7
  • Iso Butyl Iodide 5.8
  • Iso Butyl Nitrate 11.9
  • Iso Butylamine 4.5
  • Iso Butyric Acid 2.7
  • Iso Butyronitrile 20.8
  • Iso Valeric Acid (68° F) 2.6
  • Iso-Butyl Alcohol (-112° F) 31.7
  • Iso-Butyl Alcohol (32° F) 20 .5
  • Iso-Butyl Alcohol (68° F) 18.7
  • Iso-Butyl Iodide (68° F) 5.8
  • Iso-Butyl Nitrate (66° F) 11.9
  • Iso-Butylacetate (68° F) 5.6
  • Iso-Butylamine (70° F) 4.5
  • Iso-Butyric Acid (68° F) 2.7
  • Iso-Butyronitrile 23.9- 20.8
  • Iso-Butyronitrile (75° F) 20.8
  • Iso-Iodohexadecane 3.5
  • Iso-Propyl Alcohol (68° F) 18.3
  • Iso-Propyl Nitrate (66° F) 11.5
  • Iso-Valeric Acid (68° F) 2.7
  • Isoamyl Valerate (19° F) 3.6
  • Isoamyl Acetate (68° F) 5.6
  • Isoamyl Alcohol (74° F) 15.3
  • Isoamyl Bromide (76° F) 6.1
  • Isoamyl Butyrate (68° F) 3.9
  • Isoamyl Chloracetate (68 F) 7.8
  • Isoamyl Chloride (64° F) 6.4
  • Isoamyl Chloroacetate 7.8
  • Isoamyl Chloroformate (68° F) 7.8
  • Isoamyl Lodide (65° F) 5.6
  • Isoamyl Propionate (68° F) 4.2
  • Isoamyl Salicylate (68° F) 5.4
  • Isoamyl Valerate (66° F) 3.6
  • Isoamylpropionate 4.2
  • Isobuthyl Resin 1.4-2.1
  • Isobutyl Acetate (68° F) 5.6
  • Isobutyl Alcohol (68° F) 18.7
  • Isobutyl Benzoate (68° F) 5.9
  • Isobutyl Bromide (20° F) 4.0
  • Isobutyl Bromide (68° F) 6.6
  • Isobutyl Butyrate (68° F) 4.0
  • Isobutyl Chloride (68° F) 7.1
  • Isobutyl Chloroformate (68° F) 9.2
  • Isobutyl Cyanide (74° F) 13.3
  • Isobutyl Formate (66° F) 6.5
  • Isobutyl Iodide (68° F) 5.8
  • Isobutyl Nitrate (66° F) 11.9
  • Isobutyl Rininoleate (70° F) 4.7
  • Isobutyl Valerate (66° F) 3.8
  • Isobutylamine (70° F) 4.5
  • Isobutylbenzene (62° F) 2.3
  • Isobutylbenzoate (68° F) 5.9
  • Isobutylene Bromide (68° F) 4.0
  • Isobutyric Acid (68° F) 2.6
  • Isobutyric Acid (122° F) 2.7
  • Isobutyric Anhydride (68° F) 13.9
  • Isobutyronitrile (77° F) 20.8
  • Isocapronitrile (68° F) 15.7
  • Isooctane 2.1-2.3
  • Isophthalic Acid 1.4
  • Isoprene (77° F) 2.1
  • Isopropyl Alcohol 18.3
  • Isopropyl Benzene (68° F) 2.4
  • Isopropyl Nitrate 11.5
  • Isopropylamine (68° F) 5.5
  • Isopropylether (77° F) 3.9
  • Isoquinoline (76° F) 10.7
  • Isosafrol (70° F) 3.4

 


-J-

  • Jet Fuel (Jp4) (70° F) 1.7
  • Jet Fuel (Military Jp4 ) 1.7

 


-K-

  • Kent Wax 6.5-7.5
  • Kerosene (70° F) 1.8
  • Kynar 2.0

Return to top


-L-

  • Lactic Acid (61° F) 22.0
  • Lactronitrile (68° F) 38.4
  • Lad Oxide 25.9
  • Lead Acetate 2.5
  • Lead Carbonate (60° F) 18.1
  • Lead Chloride 4.2
  • Lead Nitrate 37.7
  • Lead Nomoxide (60° F) 25.9
  • Lead Oleate (64° F) 3.2
  • Lead Oxide 25.9
  • Lead Sulfate 14.3
  • Lead Sulfite 17.9
  • Lead Tetrachloride (68° F) 2.8
  • Lime 2.2 – 2.5
  • Limonene (68° F) 2.3
  • Linde 5a Molecular Sieve, Dry 1.8
  • Linoleic Acid (32° F) 2.6 – 2.9
  • Linseed Oil 3.2-3.5
  • Liquified Air 1.5
  • Liquified Hydrogen 1.2
  • Lityium Chloride 11.1
  • Lonone (65° F) 10.0
  • LPG 1.6-1.9

 


-M-

  • M-Bromoaniline (66° F) 13.0
  • M-Bromotoluene (137° F) 5.4
  • M-Chloroanaline (66° F) 13.4
  • M-Chlorotoluene (68° F) 5.6
  • M-Creosol 5
  • P-Cresol (24° F) 5.0
  • O-Cresol (77° F) 11.5
  • M-Dichlorobenzene (77° F) 5.0
  • M-Dinitro Benzene (68° F) 2.8
  • M-Nitrotoluene (68° F) 23.8
  • M-Sylene 2.4
  • M-Toluidine (64° F) 6.0
  • M-Xylene (68° F) 2.4
  • Maganese Dioxide 5-5.2
  • Magnesium Oxide 9.7
  • Magnesium Sulfate 8.2
  • Malachite 7.2
  • Maleic Anhydride (140° F) 51.0
  • Malolic Anhydride 51
  • Malonic Nitrile (97° F) 47.0
  • Mandelic Nitrile (73° F) 18.1
  • Mandelitrile (73° F) 17.0
  • Mannitol (71° F) 3.0
  • Margarine, Liquid 2.8-3.2
  • Melamine Formaldehyde (MF)
  • (MF) Molding Resin 5.5 – 6.0
  • (MF) With Alpha Cellulose Filler 7.2 – 8.2
  • (MF) With Asbestos Filler 6.1 – 6.7
  • (MF) With Cellulose Filler 4.7 – 7.0
  • (MF) With Flock Filler 5.0 – 6.0
  • (MF) With Macerated Fabric Fille 6.5 – 6.9
  • Melamine Resin 4.7-10.9
  • Menthol (42° F) 3.95
  • Menthol (107° F) 4.0
  • Menthonol (43° F) 2.1
  • Menthonol (110° F) 2.1
  • Mercuric Chloride 3.2
  • Mercurous Chloride 9.4
  • Mercury (298° F) 1.00074
  • Mercury Chloride 7-14
  • Mercury Diethyl (68° F) 2.3
  • Mesityl Oxide (68° F) 15.4
  • Mesitylene (68° F) 2.4
  • Mesitylene 3.4
  • Methal Cyanoacetate (69° F) 29.4
  • Methallmine (77° F) 9.4
  • Methane (-280° F) 1.7
  • Methane, Liquid 1.7
  • Methanol (77° F) 32.6
  • Methlene Idide 5.1
  • Methoxy-4-Methylphenol (60° F) 11.0
  • Methoxybenzene (76° F) 4.3
  • Methoxyethyl Stearate (140° F) 3.4
  • Methoxyphenol (82° F) 11.0
  • Methoxytoluene (68° F) 3.5
  • Methyl Acetate (77° F) 6.7
  • Methyl Acetophenoneoxalate (64° F) 2.8
  • Methyl Alcohol (-112° F) 56.6
  • Methyl Alcohol (32° F) 37.5
  • Methyl Alcohol (68° F) 33.1
  • Methyl Benzoate (68° F) 6.6
  • Methyl Butane (68° F) 1.8
  • Methyl Butyl Ketone (62° F) 12.4
  • Methyl Butyrate (68° F) 5.6
  • Methyl Chloride (77° F) 12.9
  • Methyl Chloroacetate (68° F) 12.9
  • Methyl Ether (78° F) 5.0
  • Methyl Ethyl Ketone (72 ° F) 18.4
  • Methyl Ethyl Ketoxime (68° F) 3.4
  • Methyl Formate (68° F) 8.5
  • Methyl Heptanol (68° F) 5.3
  • Methyl Iodide (68° F) 7.1
  • Methyl Kexyl Ketone (62° F) 10.7
  • Methyl Methacrylate (Cast ) 2.7 – 3.2
  • Methyl Nitrobenzoate (80° F) 27.0
  • Methyl O-Methoxybenzoate (70° F) 7.8
  • Methyl P-Toluate (91° F) 4.3
  • Methyl Propionate (66° F) 5.4
  • Methyl Propyl Ketone (58° F) 16.8
  • Methyl Salicylate (68° F) 9.0
  • Methyl Thiocyanate (68° F) 35.9
  • Methyl Valerate (66° F) 4.3
  • Methyl 5 Ketocyclohexylene (68° F) 24.0
  • Methyl-1-Cyclopentanol (35° F) 6.9
  • Methyl-2 4-Pentandeiol (86° F) 24.4
  • Methyl-2-Pentanone (68° F) 13.1
  • Methylal (68° F) 2.7
  • Methylaniline (68° F) 6.0
  • Methylbenzylamine (65° F) 4.4
  • Methylcyclohexanol (68° C ) 13.0
  • Methylcyclohexanone (192° F) 18.0
  • Methylcylopentane (68° F) 2.0
  • Methylene Iodide (70° F) 5.1
  • Methyleneaceloacetate (70° F) 7.8
  • Methylenemalonate (72° F) 6.6
  • Methylenephenylacetate (68° F) 5.0
  • Methylether, Liquid 5
  • Methylhexane (68° F) 1.9
  • Methylisocyanate (69° F) 29.4
  • Methyloctane (69° F) 30.0
  • Methylomine (21° F) 10.5
  • Methylphenyl Hydrazin (66° F) 7.3
  • Methylpyridine (2) (68° F) 9.8
  • Metnoxy-Four-Methyl Phenol 11
  • Mica 2.6-3.2
  • Mica 7.0
  • Mica (Glass Bonded) 6.9 – 9.2
  • Micanite 1.8-2.6
  • Mills (Dry Powder) 1.8
  • Mineral Oil (80° F) 2.1
  • Monomyristin (158° F) 6.1
  • Monopalmitin (152° F) 5.3
  • Monostearin (170° F) 4.9
  • Morpholine (77° F) 7.3

 


-N-

  • N-Butyl Alcohol (66° F) 7.8
  • N-Butyl Bromide (68° F) 6.6
  • N-Butyl Formate (-317°F) 2.4
  • N-Butyl Iodide (77° F) 6.1
  • N-Butylacetate (19° F) 5.1
  • N-Butyricaid (68° F) 2.9
  • N-Hexane (68° F) 1.9
  • N-Methylaniline (68° F) 6.0
  • N-Pentane (68° F) 1.8
  • Naphthy Ethyl Ether (67° F) 3.2
  • Napthalene (185° F) 2.3
  • Napthalene (68° F) 2.5
  • Napthonitrile (70° F) 6.4
  • Napthyl Ethyl Ether (67° F) 3.2
  • Neon (68° F) 1.000127
  • Neoprene 6-9
  • Nitric Acid (14° C) 50.0 +/- 10.0
  • Nitroanisole (68° F) 24.0
  • Nitrobenzal Doxime (248° F) 48.1
  • Nitrobenzene (68° F) 35.7
  • Nitrobenzene (77° F) 34.8
  • Nitrobenzene (176° F) 26.3
  • Nitrobenzyl Alcohol (68° F) 22.0
  • Nitrocellulose 6.2-7.5
  • Nitroethane (68° F) 19.7
  • Nitrogen (336° F) 1.454
  • Nitrogen (68° F) 1.000580
  • Nitroglycerin (68° F) 19.0
  • Nitromethane 22.7-39.4
  • Nitromethane (68° F) 39.4
  • Nitrosodimethylamine (68° F) 54.0
  • Nitrosyl Bromide (4° F) 13.0
  • Nitrosyl Chloride (10° F) 18.0
  • Nitrotoluene (68° F) 1.96
  • Nitrous Oxide (32° F) 1.6
  • Nonane (68° F) 2.0
  • Nylon 4.0 – 5.0
  • Nylon Resin 3.0 – 5.0

O - Z

-O-

  • O-Bromotoluene (137° F) 4.3
  • O-Chlorophenol (66° F) 8.2
  • O-Chlorotoluene (68° F) 4.5
  • O-Cresol (77° F) 11.5
  • O-Dichlorobenzene (77° F) 7.5
  • O-Nitro Analine (194° F) 34.5
  • O-Nitrotoluene (68° F) 27.4
  • O-Toluidine (64° F) 6.3
  • O-Xylene (68° F) 2.6
  • Octadecanol 3.42
  • Octadecanol (136° F) 3.4
  • Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (68° F) 2.4
  • Octamethyltrisiloxane (68° F) 2.3
  • Octane (24° F) 1.061
  • Octane (68° F) 2.0
  • Octanone (68° F) 10.3
  • Octene (76° F) 2.1
  • Octyl Alcohol (64° F) 3.4
  • Octyl Iodide (68° F) 4.9
  • Octylene (65° F) 4.1
  • Oil, Peanut (52° F) 3.0
  • Oil, Almond (68° F) 2.8
  • Oil, Cotton Seed (57° F) 3.1
  • Oil, Grapeseed (61° F) 2.9
  • Oil, Lemon (70° F) 2.3
  • Oil, Linseed 3.4
  • Oil, Olive (68° F) 3.1
  • Oil, Paraffin (68° F) 2.2 – 4.7
  • Oil, Petroleum (68° F) 2.1
  • Oil, Pyranol (68° F) 5.3
  • Oil, Sesame (55° F) 3.0
  • Oil, Sperm (68° F) 3.2
  • Oil, Terpentine (68° F) 2.2
  • Oil, Transformer (68° F) 2.2
  • Oleic Acid (68° F) 2.5
  • Oleric Acid 2.4-2.5
  • One-Dichloroethane 10.7
  • One-Diethoxyethane 3.8
  • Opal Wax 3.1
  • Organic Cold Molding Compound 6.0
  • Oxygen (-315° F) 1.51
  • Oxygen (68° F) 1.000494

 


-P-

  • P-Bromotoluene (137° F) 5.5
  • P-Chlorophenol (130° F) 9.5
  • P-Chlorotoluene (68° F) 6.1
  • P-Cresol (70° F) 5.6
  • P-Cresol (137° F) 9.9
  • P-Cymene (63° F) 2.3
  • P-Dibromobenzene (190° F) 4.5
  • P-Dichlorobenzine (68° F) 2.86
  • P-Dichlorobenzine (120° F) 2.4
  • P-Nitro Analine (320° F) 56.3
  • P-Nitrotoluene (137° F) 22.2
  • P-Toludine 3.0
  • P-Toluidine (130° F) 5.0
  • P-Xylene (68° F) 2.3
  • Paint 5-8
  • Palmitic Acid (160° F) 2.3
  • Paper (Dry ) 2.0
  • Paraffin 1.9-2.5
  • Paraffin Wax 2.1-2.5
  • Paraldehyde (68° F) 14.5
  • Paraldehyde (77° F) 13.9
  • Parawax 2.3
  • Parrafin Chloride 2.0-2.3
  • Penanthiene (68° F) 2.8
  • Pentachlorgethane (60° F) 3.7
  • Pentadiene 1,3 (77° F) 2.3
  • Pentane (68° F) 1.8
  • Pentanol (77° F) 13.9
  • Pentanone (2 ) (68° F) 15.4
  • Pentene (1 ) (68° F) 2.1
  • Pentochlorethane 3.7
  • Perlite 1.3 – 1.4
  • Petroleum 2.0-2.2
  • Phenanthrene (230° F) 2.7
  • Phenathiene (68° F) 2.8
  • Phenathrene (110° F) 2.72
  • Phenetole (70° F) 4.5
  • Phenol (118° F) 9.9
  • Phenol (104° F) 15.0
  • Phenol (50° F) 4.3
  • Phenol Ether (85° F) 9.8
  • Phenol Formaldehyde Resin (PFR) 4.5 – 5.0
  • (PFR) With Asbestos Filler 5.0 – 7.0
  • (PFR) With Glass Fiber Filler 6.6 – 7.0
  • (PFR) With Mica Filler 4.2 – 5.2
  • (PFR) With Mineral Filler (Cast ) 9.0 – 15.0
  • (PFR) With Sisal Fiber 3.0 – 5.0
  • (PFR) With Wood Flour Filler 4.0 – 7.0
  • Phenol Resin 4.9
  • Phenol Resin, Cumulated 4.6-5.5
  • Phenoxyacetylene (76° F) 4.8
  • Phentidine (70° F) 7.3
  • Phenyl Acetate (68° F) 6.9
  • Phenyl Ether (86° F) 3.7
  • Phenyl Iso Thiocyanate (68° F) 10.7
  • Phenyl Isocyanate (68° F) 8.9
  • Phenyl Urethane 2.7
  • Phenyl-L-Lropane (68° F) 2.7
  • Phenyl-One-Iropane 2.7
  • Phenyl-1-Propane (68° F) 1.7
  • Phenylacetaldehyde (68° F) 4.8
  • Phenylacetic (68° F) 3.0
  • Phenylacetonitrile (80° F) 18.0
  • Phenylethanol (68° F) 13.0
  • Phenylethyl Acetate (58° F) 4.5
  • Phenylethylene (77° F) 2.4
  • Phenylhydrazine (72° F) 7.2
  • Phenylsalicylate (122° F) 6.3
  • Phosgene (32° F) 4.7
  • Phosphine (-76° F) 2.5
  • Phosphorus (93° F) 4.1
  • Phosphorus Oxychloride (72° F) 14.0
  • Phosphorus Pentachloride (320° F) 2.8
  • Phosphorus Tribromide 3.9
  • Phosphorus Tribromide (68° F) 3.9
  • Phosphorus Trichloride (77° F) 3.4
  • Phosphorus, Red 4.1
  • Phosphorus, Yellow 3.6
  • Phosphoryl Chloride (70° F) 13.0
  • Phosphrous 4.1
  • Phtalide (166° F) 36.0
  • Phthalic Acid 5.1-6.3
  • Phthalide (74° F) 36.0
  • Pinacolin (62° F) 12.8
  • Pinacone (75° F) 7.4
  • Pine Tree Resin, Powder 1.5-1.8
  • Pinene (68° F) 2.7
  • Piperidine (68° F) 5.9
  • Plaster 2.5 – 6.0
  • Plastic Grain 65-75
  • Plastic Pellets 1.1-3.2
  • Plastic Sulphur, Unground 1.5
  • Platinum Catalyst 6.5 – 7.5
  • Poly Propylene 1.5
  • Polyacetal 3.6-3.7
  • Polyacetol Resin 2.6-3.7
  • Polyacrylic Ester 3.5
  • Polyamide 2.5-2.6
  • Polybutylene 2.2-2.3
  • Polycaprolactam 2.0 – 2.5
  • Polycarbonate 2.9-3.0
  • Polycarbonate Resin 2.9 – 3.0
  • Polyester Resin 2.8 – 4.5
  • Polyester Resin (Flexible ) 4.1 – 5.2
  • Polyester Resin (Glass Fiber Filled) 4.0 – 4.5
  • Polyester Resin (Ridgid Cast ) 2.8 – 4.1
  • Polyether Chloride 2.9
  • Polyether Resin 2.8-8.1
  • Polyether Resin, Unsaturated 2.8-5.2
  • Polyethylene 2.2-2.4
  • Polyethylene, Pellet 1.5
  • Polymide 2.8
  • Polymonochloro Pifluoroethylene 2.5
  • Polypropylene 1.5
  • Polypropylene Powder 1.25
  • Polypropylene, Pellet 1.5-1.8
  • Polystyrene Resin 2.4 – 2.6
  • Polystyrol 2.0-2,6
  • Polysulphonic Acid 2.8
  • Polytetra Fluoroethylene 2.0
  • Polyvinyl Alcohol 1.9-2.0
  • Polyvinyl Chloride 3.4
  • Polyvinylchloride Resin 5.8 – 6.8
  • Porcelain 5.0-7.0
  • Porcelain With Zircon 7.1 – 10.5
  • Potassium Aluminum Sulphate 3.8
  • Potassium Carbonate (60° F) 5.6
  • Potassium Chlorate 5.1
  • Potassium Chloride 4.6
  • Potassium Chloronate 7.3
  • Potassium Iodide 5.6
  • Potassium Nitrate 5.0
  • Potassium Sulfate 5.9
  • Potssium Chloromate 7.3
  • Pottasium Chloride 5.0
  • Propane (Liquid) (32° F) 1.6
  • Propanediol (68° F) 32 .0
  • Propanol (177° F) 20.1
  • Propene (68° F) 1.9
  • Propionaldehyde (62° F) 18.9
  • Propionic Acid (58° F) 3.1
  • Propionic Anhydride (60° F) 18.0
  • Propionitrile (68° F) 27.7
  • Propy Butyrate (68° F) 4.3
  • Propyl Acetate (68° F) 6.3
  • Propyl Alcohol (68° F) 21.8
  • Propyl Benzene (68° F) 2.4
  • Propyl Bromide (68° F) 7.2
  • Propyl Butyrate (68° F) 4.3
  • Propyl Chloroformate (68° F) 11.2
  • Propyl Ether (78° F) 3.4
  • Propyl Formate (66° F) 7.9
  • Propyl Nitrate (64° F) 14.2
  • Propyl Propionate (68° F) 4.7
  • Propyl Valerate (65° F) 4.0
  • Propylene Liquid 11.9
  • Psuedocumene (60° F) 2.4
  • Pulegone (68° F) 9.5
  • Pulezone (66° F) 9.7
  • PVC, Powder 1.4
  • Pyrex 4.8
  • Pyrex Glass 4.3 – 5.0
  • Pyridine (68° F) 12.5
  • Pyroceram 3.5-4.5
  • Pyrrole (63° F) 7.5

 


-Q-

  • Quartz 4.2
  • Quinoline (77° F) 9.0
  • Quinoline (-292° F) 2.6

 


-R-

  • Reburned Lime 2.2
  • Refractory (Cast ) 6.7
  • Refractory (For Casting ) 1.8 – 2.1
  • Resorcinol 3.2
  • Rice (Dry) 3.5
  • Rice Bran 1.4-2.0
  • Rouge 1.5
  • Rouge (Jewelers) 1.5 – 1.6
  • Rubber 3.0
  • Rubber (Chlorinated) 3.0
  • Rubber (Hard) 2.8
  • Rubber (Isomerized) 2.4 – 3.7
  • Rubber Cement 2.7-2.9
  • Rubber Chloride 2.1-2.7
  • Rubber, Raw 2.1-2.7
  • Rubber, Sulphurized 2.5-4.6
  • Ruby 11.3
  • Rutile 6.7

 


-S-

  • Safrol (70° F) 3.1
  • Salicylaldehyde (68° F) 13.9
  • Salt 3.0 – 15.0
  • Sand (Dry ) 5.0
  • Sand (Silicon Dioxide ) 3 – 5.0
  • Santowax (70° F) 2.3
  • Selenium 6.1-7.4
  • Selenium 11
  • Selenium (482° F) 5.4
  • Selevium (249° F) 5.4
  • Sesame 1.8-2.0
  • Shellac 2.0-3.8
  • Silica Aluminate 2
  • Silica Sand 2.5-3.5
  • Silicon 11.0 – 12.0
  • Silicon Dioxide 4.5
  • Silicon Tetrachloride (60° F) 2.4
  • Silicone Molding Compound (SMC)
  • (SMC) (Glass Fiber Filled) 3.7
  • Silicone Oil 2.2-2.9
  • Silicone Resin, Liquid 3.5-5.0
  • Silicone Rubber 3.2-9.8
  • Silicone Varnish 2.8-3.3
  • Silk 2.5-3.5
  • Silver Bromide 12.2
  • Silver Chloride 11.2
  • Silver Cyanide 5.6
  • Slaked Lime, Powder 2.0-3.5
  • Slate 6.0-7.5
  • Smithsonite 9.3
  • Soap Powders 1.2 – 1.7
  • Sodium Carbonate 5.3 – 8.4
  • Sodium Carbonate (Anhyd) 8.4
  • Sodium Carbonate (10h20) 5.3
  • Sodium Chloride 5.9
  • Sodium Chloride (Salt) 6.1
  • Sodium Cyanide 7.55
  • Sodium Dichromate 2.9
  • Sodium Nitrate 5.2
  • Sodium Oleate (68° F) 2.7
  • Sodium Perchlorate 5.4
  • Sodium Phosphate 1.6-1.9
  • Sodium Porchlorate 5.4
  • Sodium Sulphide 5
  • Sorbitol (176° F) 33.5
  • Soy Beans 2.8
  • Stannec Chloride (72° F) 3.2
  • Starch 3-5
  • Starch, Paste 1.7-1.8
  • Stearic Acid (160° F) 2.3
  • Stearine 2.3
  • Steatite 5.5 – 7.5
  • Styrene (77° F) 2.4
  • Styrene (Modified ) 2.4 – 3.8
  • Styrene (Phenylethane ) (77° F) 2.4
  • Styrene Resin 2.3-3.4
  • Succinamide (72° F) 2.9
  • Succinic Acid (78° F) 2.4
  • Sucrose 3.3
  • Sucrose (Mean ) 3.3
  • Sugar 3.0
  • Sugar, Granulated 1.5-2.2
  • Sulfur 1.6 – 1.7
  • Sulfur Dioxide (-4° F) 17.6
  • Sulfur Dioxide (32° F) 15.0
  • Sulfur Monochloride (58° F) 4.8
  • Sulfur Trioxide (64° F) 3.1
  • Sulfurous Oxychloride (72° F) 9.1
  • Sulfuryl Chloride (72° F) 10.0
  • Sulphur( 244° F) 3.5
  • Sulphur (450° F) 3.5
  • Sulphur Dioxide (32° F) 15.6
  • Sulphur Trioxide (70° F) 3.6
  • Sulphur, Liquid 3.5
  • Sulphur, Powder 3.6
  • Sulphuric Acid (68° F) 84.0
  • Sulfuric Acid (25° C) 100.0
  • Supphuric Oxychloride (72° F) 9.2
  • Syrup 50-80
  • Syrup Wax 2.5-2.9

 


-T-

  • Tantalum Oxide 11.6
  • Tartaric Acid (68°F) 6.0
  • Tartaric Acid (14° F) 35.9
  • Teflon 2.0
  • Teflon (4f) 2.0
  • Teflon, FEP 2.1
  • Teflon, PCTFE 2.3-2.8
  • Teflon, PTFE 2
  • Tepineol 2.8
  • Terpinene (70° F) 2.7
  • Terpineol (72° F) 2.8
  • Tetrabromoethane (72° F) 7.0
  • Tetrachloroethylene (70° F) 2.5
  • Tetradecamethyltetradecamethylcycloheptasiloxan 2.7
  • Tetradecamethylhexosiloxane (68° F) 2.5
  • Tetradecanol (100° F) 4.7
  • Tetraethyl Amylenetetracarboxylate 4.40
  • Tetraethyl Hexane-1-Phenyl Tetracarboxylate (66° F) 5.9
  • Tetraethyl Pentane Diphenyl Tetracarboxylate (68° F) 2.7
  • Tetraethyl Propane Tetracarboxylate (66° F) 5.2
  • Tetraethyl Propylene Tetracarboxylate (66° F) 6.0
  • Tetraethyl Silicate (68° F) 4.1
  • Tetrafluoroethylene 2.0
  • Tetrahydro-B-Napthol (68° F) 11.0
  • Tetranitromethane (68° F) 2.2
  • Tetratriacontadiene (76° F) 2.8
  • Thallium Chloride 46.9
  • Thinner 3.7
  • Thioacetic Acid (68° F) 13.0
  • Thionyl Bromide (68° F) 9.1
  • Thionyl Chloride (68° F) 9.3
  • Thiophene (60° F) 2.8
  • Thiophosphoryl Chloride (70° F) 5.8
  • Thorium Oxide 10.6
  • Thrichloroethylene (61° F) 3.4
  • Thujone (32° F) 10.0
  • Tide (Loose From Box) 1.6
  • Tin Tetrachloride (68° F) 2.9
  • Titamium Tetrachloride (68° F) 2.8
  • Titanium Dioxide 110.00
  • Titanium Oxide 40-50
  • Titanium Tetrachloride (68 Degrees F) 2.8
  • Tobacco 1.6 – 1.7
  • Tobacco Dust (6% Moisture ) 1.7
  • Toluene (68° F) 2.4
  • Toluene, Liquid 2.0-2.4
  • Toluidine (68° F) 6.0
  • Tolunitrile (73° F) 18.8
  • Tolyl Methyl Ether (68° F) 3.5
  • Totane (111° F) 5.5
  • Tourmaline 6.3
  • Trans-3-Hexene (76° F) 2.0
  • Transmission Oil (80° F) 2.2
  • Tribromopropane (68° F) 6.4
  • Tributylphosphate (86° F) 8.0
  • Trichlorethylene 3.4
  • Trichloroacetic Acid (140° F) 4.6
  • Trichloroethane 7.5
  • Trichloroethylene (61° F) 3.4
  • Trichlorololuene (70° F) 6.9
  • Trichloropropane (76° F) 2.4
  • Trichlorotoluene (69° F) 6.9
  • Trichloroxoluene 6.9
  • Tricosanone (176° F) 4.0
  • Tricresyl Phosphate (104° F) 6.9
  • Triethyl Aconitate (68° F) 6.4
  • Triethyl Aluminum (68° F) 2.9
  • Triethyl Ethanetricarboxylate (66° F) 6.5
  • Triethyl Isoaconitate (68° F) 7.2
  • Triethylamine (21° F) 3.2
  • Triethylamine (77° F) 2.4
  • Trifluoroactic Acid (68° F) 39.0
  • Trifluorotoluene (86° F) 9.2
  • Trimethyl Borate (68° F) 8.2
  • Trimethyl-3-Heptene (68° F) 2.2
  • Trimethylamine (77° F) 2.5
  • Trimethylbenzene (68° F) 2.3
  • Trimethylbutane (68° F) 1.9
  • Trimethylpentane 1.9
  • Trimethylpentane (68° F) 2.9
  • Trimethylsulfanilic Acid (64° F) 89.0
  • Trinitrobenzene (68° F) 2.2
  • Trinitrotoluene (69° F) 22.0
  • Triolein (76° F) 3.2
  • Triphenylmethane (212° F) 2.3
  • Tripolmitin (140° F) 2.9
  • Tristearin (158° F) 2.8
  • Turpentine (Wood) (68° F) 2.2
  • Two-Dichloroethane 10.7

 


-U-

  • Undecane (68° F) 2.0
  • Undecanone (58° F) 8.4
  • Urea 5-8
  • Urea (71° F) 3.5
  • Urea Formaldehyde (Uf Degrees F)
  • Urea Formaldehyde (Cellulose Filler) 6.4 – 6.9
  • Urea Resin 6.2-9.5
  • Urethan (121° F) 14.2
  • Urethane (74° F) 3.2
  • Urethane Resin 6.5 – 7.1

 


-V-

  • Valeraldehyde (58° F) 11.8
  • Valeric Acid (68° F) 2.6
  • Valeronitrile (70° F) 17.7
  • Vanadium Oxybromide (78° F) 3.6
  • Vanadium Oxychloride (78° F) 3.4
  • Vanadium Sulfide 3.1
  • Vanadium Tetrachloride (78° F) 3.0
  • Vaseline 2.2-2.9
  • Veratrol (73° F) 4.5
  • Vinyl Alcohol Resin 2.6-3.5
  • Vinyl Butyral 3.3 – 3.9
  • Vinyl Chloride (Acetate ) 3.0 – 3.1
  • Vinyl Chloride (Flexible ) 3.5 – 4.5
  • Vinyl Chloride (Ridgig ) 2.8 – 3.0
  • Vinyl Chloride Resin, Hard 5.8-6.4
  • Vinyl Chloride Resin, Soft 2.8-4.0
  • Vinyl Ether (68° F) 3.9
  • Vinyl Formal 3.0
  • Vinyllidene Chloride 3.0 – 4.0
  • Vycor Glass 3.8

 


-W-

  • Water 4-88
  • Water (32° F) 88.0
  • Water (68° F) 80.4
  • Water (212° F) 55.3
  • Water (390° F) 34.5
  • Water (80° F) 80.0
  • Water (Steam ) 1.00785
  • Wax 2.4-6.5
  • Wheat Flour 3.0 – 5.0
  • Wheat Flour (Dry Powder ) 1.6
  • White Mica 4.5-9.6
  • Wood, Dry 2-6
  • Wood, Pressed Board 2.0-2.6
  • Wood, Wet 10-30

 


-X-

  • Xylene (68° F) 2.4
  • Xylene, Liquid 2.2-2.6
  • Xylenol 17
  • Xylenol (62° F) 3.9
  • Xylidine (68° F) 5.0

 


-Y-


-Z-

  • Zinc Oxide 1.7-2.5
  • Zinc Sulfide 8.2
  • Zircon 12.0
  • Zirconium Oxide 12.5
  • Zirconium Silicate 5.0

Varec can help you understand the implications of each and will assist you with the selection of the most appropriate measurement system for your needs.